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语法精讲之虚拟语气

2015-12-21 16:15:28 | 编辑: | 有人参与 | 来自:
  虚拟语气讲解

  一、虚拟语气基本用法

  ① 现在的虚拟:从句 if + 过去时、主句过去将来时

  If it had no difficulties in life, it would be too smooth.

  If there were no clouds, we would not enjoy the sun.

  If we wanted to love those who have no imperfections, this world would be a desert.

  If it were not for the rocks in its bed, the stream would have no song.

  ② 过去的虚拟:从句 if + 过去完成时、主句 should\would\could\+have done

  If they had not wasted so much time, many persons in the world would have scored achievement.

  ③ 将来的虚拟:从句if + 过去时\were to\should+V、 主句 过去将来时

  If I should summarize the most important principle I have learned in interpersonal skills, it would be this: understand and be understood.

  ④ 交错式: 从句 if + 过去完成时、主句过去将来时

  If we had looked at our past experience, where would we be today?

  ⑤ 虚拟语气在宾从中的使用:以下这些动词在后面引导宾从时,宾从中的谓语动词用should+ V, should可省略

  Drop is C. D: demand desire R: require request O: order P: propose I: insist S: suggest C: command

  In life, one’s goals may require that one (should) try different approaches.

  To be successful in life demands that a person (should) make a personal commitment to excellence.

  ⑥ 在表语及同位语从句中的使用:

  如以下这些抽象名词引导同位语从句,谓语用should+V, should可省略

  如以下这些抽象名词做主语,谓语用should+V, should可省略。

  Demand\request\requirement\insistence\suggestion\proposal\command\recommendation\resolution\urge\prescription\order\desire\determination\direction\advice

  The suggestion is that to listen effectively, one (should) find meaning in what is being said.

  The first requirement of good conversation is that others (should) know what is coming next.

  ⑦ 在主语从句中的使用:

  以下形式主语从句中,谓语用should+V should可省略。

  It is demanded that

  It is desired that

  It is requested that

  It is required that

  It is ordered that

  It is insisted that

  It is maintained that

  It is proposed that

  It is suggested that

  It is commanded that

  It is important that

  It is vital that

  It is imperative that

  It is necessary that

  It is best that

  It is proper that

  It is expedient that

  It is vital that one (should) choose the right attitude.

  It is necessary to the happiness that one (should) be faithful to one’s dream.

  二、虚拟语气的特殊用法

  ⑴ 虚拟语气倒装: if 条件从句的谓语是were to \ had \ should 时,可以去掉if,将这三个词放在主语前。

  Had they not wasted so much time, many persons in the world would have scored achievement.

  Should I summarize the most important principle I have learned in interpersonal skills, it would be this: understand and be understood.

  ⑵ wish + 宾从

  对现在的虚拟:宾从谓语用过去时

  对过去的虚拟:宾从谓语用过去完成时

  对将来的虚拟:宾从谓语用过去将来时

  ⑶ in order that 和so that 引导的目的状语从句

  ⑷ as if +方式状语从句

  对现在的虚拟:谓语用过去时

  对过去的虚拟:谓语用过去完成时

  对将来的虚拟:谓语用过去将来时

  ⑸ It’s high\about time that + 定从 谓语用 should + V 或 过去时。Should永远不可以省略。

  ⑹ lest / for fear that / in case引导的目的状语从句,谓语一般用 should + V

  ⑺ if only= wish

  ⑻ 表祝愿

  May… Long live… God bless… God grant that…

  ⑼ 不用从句用词组:without, but for, otherwise, or 等。

  ⑽ 正式文体中,主句不虚拟而当条件或让步状语从句是“系表结构”时 ,系动词用原形。

  No lazy man is ever safe, whether he be rich or poor.

  ⑾ Would rather + 宾从

  对现在的虚拟:宾从谓语用过去时

  对过去的虚拟:宾从谓语用过去完成时

  对将来的虚拟:宾从谓语用过去将来时

  ⑿ 礼貌

  I was wondering if you could + V + sth

  I would be most honored if you did sth?

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