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语法精讲二——定语从句讲解

2015-12-21 16:12:54 | 编辑: | 有人参与 | 来自:
  定语从句讲解

  在复合句中修饰名词或代词的从句是定语从句被定语从句修饰的名词或代词叫先行词,定语从句必须放在先行词的后面定语从句一般由关系代词that, which, who, whom, whose和关系副词 when, where, why引导。关系代词和关系副词有两个作用: 1 把主句与从句连接起来 2 在从句中担当一定的句子成分。关系代词在从句中可做主语,宾语,表语,定语;关系副词在从句中只能做状语。

  (一)定从引导词

  ⑴由关系代词引导的定语从句

  ① who先行词是人,在定从中可以做主语或宾语

  The man who has no inner life is miserable.

  ② which 先行词必须是物,在定从中可以做主语或宾语

  Love is the key which opens the gate of happiness.

  ③ that 先行词既可是人,又可是物,在定从中做主语或宾语

  To live is an art that everyone must learn.

  ④ whom 先行词是人,在定从中做宾语

  It is unwise to make friends with those whom one does not know well.

  ⑤ whose 先行词既可是人,又可是物,在定从中做定语

  Success is a journey whose initial step is always tough.

  ⑵关系副词引导的定从,where\why \ when 这三个词在定从中做状语,后面加一个完整句。

  1. There will be moments in life when one is presented with new options.

  2. Work is the place where happiness lives.

  3. Unsuccessful people can always find reasons why they are not doing well.

  ㈡ 定从分类:

  Œ 限制性定从:由一个定从直接加在先行词后,无逗号隔开,去掉后影响整句的意思。

  Success is a process that begins from within.

  Passion is any emotion that moves you.

   非限制性定从:与主句之间用逗号隔开,去掉后不影响整句的意思。

  The youth need to have ambition and dreams, which are vital.

  The youth need to have ambition and dreams, which is vital.

  ㈢ 介词提前放在引导词前共有如下三种情况:

  ① 定从中的某介词的需要:

  Experience is a school which you will never graduate from.

  Experience is a school from which you will never graduate.

  Honesty is the foundation which many other qualities are based on.

  Honesty is the foundation on which many other qualities are based.

  ② 先行词决定:

  Each of us has a purpose for which we were created.

  ③ 由句意决定:

  Kindness is the golden chain by which society is bound together.

  Life is a flower of which love is the honey.

  (四) 只可用关系代词that的几种情况。

  1. 先行词为all, everything, nothing, something, anything, little, few, much等不定代词时。

  All that glitters is not gold.

  2. 先行词被序数词或形容词最高级修饰时。

  Attitude is the first quality that marks the successful man.

  3. 先行词被the only,the very, the last等修饰时。

  To face fear is the only method that really works.

  (五) 只可用which 而不用that 的几种情况

  1. 在非限定性定语从句中,只宜用which, 不宜用that。

  One may go wrong in many different ways, but right only in one, which is why it is easy to fail and difficult to succeed.

  2. 关系代词前面有介词的时候 。

  Behavior is a mirror in which everyone shows his image.

  第四讲状语从句讲解

  ㈠ 时间状语从句

  通常有下列连词引导: when, whenever, while, as, before, after, until, since, as soon as, the moment, the instant, the minute, the second, every time, each time。

  1. When a person feels encouraged, he can face the impossible.

  2. Every time you help somebody else, you help yourself.

  ㈡ 地点状语从句

  通常由下列连词引导: where, wherever, no matter where, everywhere, anywhere。

  1. Your liberty to swing your arms ends where my nose begins.

  2. Where there is smoke, there is fire.

  ㈢ 条件状语从句

  通常由下列连词引导: if, unless, suppose, supposing, provided, providing, on condition that, as long as, in case, once, assuming, so long as。

  1. If one thinks small, he will stay small.

  2. All dreams are of no value unless they are followed by action.

  3. As long as the world lasts, there will be mistakes.

  ㈣ 原因状语从句

  通常由下列连词引导: because, as, since, now that, not that…but that, in that, considering that。

  1. People are lonely because they build walls instead of bridges.

  2. When I was young, I admired people with wealth. Now that I am mature, I admire people with wisdom.

  ㈤ 结果状语从句

  通常由下列连词引导: so…that…, such…that…, so that。

  1. I like to see a man live, so that his country will be proud of him.

  2. Youth is so wonderful that it is a crime to waste it

  ㈥ 目的状语从句

  通常由下列连词引导: so that, in order that, lest, in case, for fear that。

  1. We should greet each new day with a plan so that the high road upon which we travel could be marked well.

  2. Be helpful to those on their way up, in case you should need them on your way down.

  ㈦ 让步状语从句

  通常由下列连词引导: although, though, as, even if, even though, whatever, no matter (how, what, where, when) , while, whether, whatever, whoever, whichever, whenever, wherever, however。

  1. Although the world is full of suffering, they can always be overcome.

  2. While winning is not everything, trying to win is everything.

  3. No matter how much we have learned, there is always more to learn.

  ㈧ 方式状语从句

  通常由下列连词引导: as, as if, as though, in the way that, in the same way that, in the manner that, in the same manner that。

  1. If we couldn’t do as we would, we should do as we can.

  2. Look at everything as though you were seeing it either for the first time or last time.

  ㈨ 比较状语从句

  通常由下列连词引导: as…as, than, not so… as, the…the…。

  1. Wisdom is more precious than wealth.

  2. The more we study, the more we discover our ignorance.

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