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语法精讲(一)——句子构成成分分析

2015-12-21 16:12:17 | 编辑: | 有人参与 | 来自:
  第一讲句子构成成分分析

  句子构成

  构成句子的成分共分为九种:主语,谓语,宾语,表语,定语,状语,补语,同位语和插入语

  一、主语:句子的核心主体,通常位于谓语动词之前,表明一个句子是谁或何种情况所发出执行或是承受的常做主语的有名词、代词、主语从句、V-ing 、To do五种。

  1 名词:

  Success is the result of good judgment.

  Life lights the candle of hope.

  2 代词:

  We live and learn.

  I doubt, therefore I think. I think, therefore I am.

  3 主语从句:

  How a person masters his fate is more important than what his fate is.

  What is worth doing is worth doing well.

  4 V-ing:

  Losing can be a real beginning.

  Believing in yourself is the secret of success.

  5 To do:

  To light the candle of heart is better than to curse the darkness of the outside world.

  To know is wisdom and to do is a skill.

  二、谓语:描述或阐述主语的情况,由动词来充当,常位于主语之后。

  1 表状态用系动词:

  Life is full of ups and downs.

  Life is hope and hope is life.

  2 表动作用及物或不及物动词:

  Many hands make light work.

  I came I saw I conquered.

  3 表拥有:人或物时用:have has 无生命的东西:there be

  Every dog has its day.

  In a full heart, there is room for everything.

  4 情态动词+动词原形:

  A man may die, nations may fall, but an idea lives on.

  三、宾语:及物动词或介词所指向的对象。常做宾语的有名词、宾语从句、复合结构、V-ing 、To do五种。

  1 名词:

  Reading enriches our mind.

  Haste makes waste.

  2 宾语从句:

  Goals determine what you are going to be.

  Temptation discovers what we are.

  3 复合结构:

  If you lack confidence you will find it hard to win.

  4 V-ing:

  You are never a loser until you quit trying.

  Reading is like opening a window to the outside world.

  5 To do:

  Winners expect to win in advance.

  One should learn to forgive.

  四、表语:接在系动词后,补充说明主语的情况又称为主语补足语。常做表语的有名词、形容词、V-ing 、To do、从句五种。

  1 名词:

  Life is not a bed of roses.

  Today is our only sure possession.

  2 形容词:

  Time is fleeting and art is long.

  Change is constant.

  3 V-ing:

  Courage is doing what others think you can’t do.

  Life is painting a picture, not doing a sum.

  4 To do:

  To change attitude is to change life.

  The proper function of man is to live, not to exist.

  5 从句:

  The real measure of success is how happy we are.

  Love is what links two souls.

  五、定语:修饰名词或类似于名词的词。一般翻译为“……..的”,表示事物性质或状态,分为前置或后置。常做定语的有形容词、名词、V-ing 、To do、从句五种。

  1 形容词:

  A warm smile is the universal language.

  Each moment in history is a fleeting time.

  2 名词:

  Adversity teaches one a great deal about survival skills.

  Life education is the basis for success in the knowledge society.

  名词做定语(名词修饰名词重要原则:第一个名词一般用单数 以下为常用名词修饰名词词组)

  1 Information technology

  2 Information center

  3 Credit card

  4 Generation gap

  5 Beauty contest

  6 Communication skills

  7 Information age

  8 Knowledge economy

  9 Peace talks

  10 Service industry

  11 Water scarcity

  12 Survival skills

  13 Press conference

  14 Safety standard

  15 Life insurance

  16 Weather forecast

  17 Reception desk

  18 Coffee break

  19 Body guard

  20 Heart attack

  21 Department store

  22 Stock market

  23 Office building

  24 Science fiction

  3 V-ing:

  Failure is a learning experience.

  The starting point of all achievements is desire.

  4 To do:

  There is no time to lose.

  One’s greatest power is the power to choose.

  5 定语从句:

  That is a good book which is opened with expectation and closed with profit.

  Success is a process that never ends.

  六、状语:修饰动词、形容词、副词或整句的词或句。按照功能分十一种:时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、方式、条件、让步、比较、伴随、评注。常做状语的有副词 、状语从句 、状语从句省略结构 、To do 、V-ing 、V-ed 六种。

  1 副词 :

  Still water runs deep.

  One should have clearly defined goals.

  Excellency is doing ordinary things extraordinarily well.

  Clearly, one’s fate is in his/her own hands.

  2 状语从句 :

  When an opportunity is neglected, it never comes back to you.

  Nothing is ordinary if one knows how to use it.

  3 状语从句省略结构 :

  If possible, go after your dream forever!

  4 To do :

  To associate with friends, one should be honest and open.

  To leap higher, one can draw back.

  5 V-ing :

  Lacking a clear world outlook, life becomes a kind of burden.

  Bad books are poison, doing harm to one’s heart and soul.

  6 V-ed :

  United we stand; divided we fall.

  Well done, the smallest task becomes a miracle of achievement.

  七、补语:主语补足语(补充说明主语的情况,又称表语)、宾语补足语(补充说明宾语的情况)常做宾语补足语的有形容词和To do 两种。

  1 形容词:

  Histories make men wise.

  Love makes the world more colorful for all.

  2 To do:

  Difficulties train one to be great.

  Motive urges one to make progress.

  八、同位语:句子中的两种成份表达同一种概念,即A=B 称之为同位语。常做同位语的有名词和从句两种。

  1 名词:

  We should make full use of today, the hope of tomorrow.

  Never give up your dream, the source of happiness.

  2 从句:

  Failure is a sign that one should explore other opportunities.

  The fact that you have tried your best is in itself a big victory.

  九、插入语

  插入语是说话者对所表达意思的补充、强调、解释或者说话的态度,其位置灵活,常常用逗号或破折号与其它成分隔开,并且在语法上不影响其他成分。

  1 Indeed的确,

  2 Surely无疑,

  3 However然而,

  4 Obviously显然,

  5 Frankly坦率地说,

  6 Naturally自然,

  7 Luckily (或happily)for somebody算某人幸运,

  8 Fortunately/Luckily幸好,

  9 Roughly 大体上来说,

  10 Briefly简单地说,

  11 Strange to say说也奇怪,

  12 Needless to say不用说,

  13 Most important of all最为重要是,

  14 Worse still更糟糕的是,

  15 In a few words(或in sum,in short)简而言之,

  16 In other words换句话说,

  17 In a sense在某种意义上,

  18 In general一般说来,

  19 In my view在我看来,

  20 In conclusion总之,

  21 In summary概括地说,

  22 To be true 诚然,

  23 In the first place首先,

  24 In addition此外,

  25 Of course当然,

  26 To my knowledge据我所知,

  27 For instance(或example)例如,

  28 As a matter of fact事实上,

  29 Strictly speaking严格地说,

  30 Generally speaking一般地说,

  31 Judging from根据…判断,

  32 To be sure无疑,

  33 To sum up概括地说,

  34 To tell the truth老实说,

  35 I am sure我可以肯定地说,

  36 I believe我相信,

  37 I wonder我不知道,

  38 That is也就是说,

  39 It seems看来是,

  40 As I see it照我看来,

  41 What is important (serious)重要(严重)的是,

  42 In a nutshell总之,

  43 In the final analysis归根结底,

  44 At any rate不管怎么说,

  45 On the contrary相反,

  46 In the long run从长远来看,

  47 By contrast对比而言,

  48 Morally speaking 从道德的层面上来说,

  49 In comparison相比之下,

  50 In theory从理论上来说,

  第二讲 名词性从句讲解

  A主语从句:

  ㈠主从可由以下这些引导词引导:that\ whether\ whoever\ which\ what\ whatever\ where\ how\ when\ why\ if

  ⑴That 引导主从,在主从中不做成份。句型一 That + 完整句=名词可做主语

  That everyone may receive at least a moderate education is significant.

  That we should act in the right spirit is necessary.

  ⑵Whether引导主从,在主从中做状语。句型二 Whether+完整句=名词可做主语

  Whether you can succeed in making your dream come true depends on hard work more than luck.

  Whether it rains or shines makes no difference to proactive people.

  ⑶Whoever引导主从,在主从中做主语。句型三 Whoever +不完整句=名词可做主语

  Whoever wants to reach a distant goal must take many small steps.

  Whoever dares wins.

  ⑷Which 引导主从,在主从中做定语。句型四 Which+不完整句=名词可做主语

  Which way you turn is up to you.

  ⑸What 引导主从,在主从中做主语、宾语。句型五What+不完整句=名词可做主语

  What’s done can’t be undone.

  What we do willingly is easy.

  ⑹Whatever 引导主从,在主从中做主语、宾语。句型六 Whatever+不完整句=名词可做主语

  Whatever is at the center of our life will be the source of our wisdom and power.

  Whatever you love and trust in this world loves you in return.

  ⑺Where 引导主从,在主从中做状语。 句型七 Where+完整句=名词可做主语

  Where we enjoy love is home.

  ⑻How 引导主从,在主从中做状语。句型八 How+完整句=名词可做主语

  How you think and act will influence your life.

  (9)when 引导主从,在主从中做状语。句型九 When+完整句=名词可做主语

  When the sun is shining is the best time to repair the roof

  When you can make it depends on your effort.

  (10)why引导主从,在主从中做状语。句型十 Why+完整句=名词可做主语

  Why helping others brings about happiness is based on the fact that the more we give, the more we have.

  ㈡ 主语从句与形式主语it 的关系

  主从如果过长时,可用it替代,将原来的主从放在后面。

  ㈢ 英语写作中形式主从的使用

  1It is often the case that

  2It is a fact that

  3It seems that

  4It is said that

  5It is reported that

  6It is believed that

  7It is universally accepted that

  8It is announced that

  9It is estimated that

  10It must be admitted that

  11It is obvious that

  12It must be stressed out that

  13It is widely-accepted that

  14It cannot be denied that

  15It can be foreseen that

  16It is as clear as crystal that

  17It goes without saying that

  18 It is acknowledged that

  19 It is well-known that

  20 It is estimated that

  B宾语从句:

  ㈠以下这些引导词通常可引导宾从:that\ whether\ if\ which\ how\ what\ whatever\ where

  ⑴That

  Sometimes we need to remind ourselves that thankfulness is indeed a virtue.

  ⑵Whether\if

  Attitude determines whether\if people are successful and able to enjoy life.

  ⑶Which

  A straw shows which way the wind blows.

  ⑷How

  Our motives shape how we see the world.

  ⑸What

  I don’t fear what is ahead.

  The secret of life is not to do what you like, but to try to like what you do.

  Our thoughts make us what we are.

  ⑹Whatever

  I am prepared to learn whatever I need to know.

  If you have a plan, you can deal with whatever comes along.

  I am willing to pay whatever price is required to win.

  ⑺Where

  My past experiences brought me to where I am today.

  ㈡宾语从句拓展句型

  宾语从句是英语写作非常常用的一种从句。它一般在议论文中用来提出观点,在图表作文中用来定位。

  Some people think that

  Some people believe that

  Some people do believe that

  Some people do strongly believe that

  Some people hold that

  Some people point out that

  Some people insist that

  Some people maintain that

  Some people argue that

  Some people contend that

  Some people deem that

  Some people are convinced that

  Some people are fully convinced that

  Some people are firmly convinced that

  Some people take it for granted that

  We should admit that

  Nobody can deny that

  Some people agree that

  Some people conclude that

  Some people assert that

  The table shows that

  The bar chart displays that

  The line graph illustrates that

  The pie chart describes that

  The map presents that

  The diagram reveals that

  These two charts indicate that

  C表语从句:

  (一)以下这些引导词通常可以引导表从:that \ whether\ what\ where\ how\ why\ when

  ⑴That

  The only certainty is that nothing is certain.

  ⑵Whether

  The test of our progress is whether we can provide enough for those who have too little.

  ⑶What

  Purpose is what gives life meaning.

  The future isn’t what it used to be.

  Success is what I’m dying for.

  ⑷Where

  Your big opportunity may be right where you are.

  ⑸How

  Sharing is how we express love.

  ⑹Why

  That’s why we say attitude is everything.

  ⑺When

  The biggest victory is when we recognize that we ought to control our thoughts.

  ㈡表语从句拓展句型

  表语从句是英语写作中非常常用的一种从句,可构成各种句型。

  The first thing to be mentioned is that

  Another point to be considered is that

  The last thing to be shown is that

  The first advantage of (doing) something is that

  Another advantage of (doing) something is that

  The third advantage of (doing) something is that

  The first disadvantage of (doing) something is that

  Another disadvantage of (doing) something is that

  The third disadvantage of (doing) something is that

  The first possible reason is that

  Another cause is that

  The third element is that

  The first measure to be taken is that

  Another solution is that

  The third step is that

  That is why

  Why…is that…

  A hot topic discussed by people is whether

  A is to B what C is to D

  A is to B as C is to D

  My view is that…

  D同位语从句:

  同位语从句一般只由that来引导

  We should care for each other in the knowledge that we are more alike than we are different.

  We hold this truth to be self-evident that all men are created equal.

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